DIGGING IN THE ARCHIVES

CALIFORNIA EDITION

 

Between 2010 and 2018 outhousepatrol.com spent several thousand hours  in historical libraries and utilizing online resources. Local, state and federal records relating to  mining camp  businesses  throughout the Western United

Montana Territory business license receipts (between 30 and 40 thousand) were searched in most mineral producing counties in southwestern Montana. Names, place of business, fees and dates of operation were logged. Montana Territory, in 1865, mandated licensing fees for hotels, saloon, liveries, and other business types.  More that 4,700 names covering the period 1865-1886 were retrieved. The Montana licensing fees were modeled after Federal licensing that the forerunner of the IRS instituted to pay for the Civil War.

Extensive research was conducted on IRS records existing for Iowa and the major gold producing areas of California. Iowa records exist starting in 1862, California records (1863-1866) total more than 2,600 entries. This search was limited to gold country hotels, saloons, wholesale liquor dealers, liveries, eating houses, and apothecaries. They were the high-volume types of businesses we thought had the best chances of yielding antique bottles or other gold rush artifacts.

I have logged data from the IRS annual reports only covering 1863-1866. Most counties have no more than 2 years of data. much more information is still waiting  in the Monthly and Special reports.

Have all annual report data for Nevada Territory 1863&1864 plus Idaho Territory 1865&1866, add Iowa to the mix the total becomes more than 11,000 Hotels, Saloons, Wholesale Liquor Dealers,Apothecaries, Eating Houses, and  Livery Stables.

The miners usually arrived in the mineral areas of the west at least several years before the first surveyors finally appeared, Court house records may or may not indicate lot and block in the early documents. But with 11,000 names on the list and intact early court records many historic sites will be pinpointed.

Many of these sites long forgotten, or even lost to history. Will make a lot of research available relating to town sites on public land which is off limits for digging.

Will examine all data associated with  private lands and contact a number of property owners regarding possibility of reaching agreement for access.

Please contact us for more information, Reg

THE TAX MAN COMETH

The Civil War income tax was the first tax paid on individual incomes by residents of the United States. It was a “progressive” tax in that it initially levied a tax of 3 percent on annual incomes of $600 but less than $10,000 and a tax of 5 percent on any income of $10,000. In 1864 the rates and the ceiling dropped so that incomes between $600 and $5,000 were taxed at 5 percent, with a 10 percent rate on the excess over $5,000.     Annual licenses were required for bankers, auctioneers, wholesale and retail dealers, pawnbrokers, tobacconists, jugglers, confectioners, horse dealers, peddlers, apothecaries, photographers, lawyers, and physicians.

Hotels, Inns, and taverns were classified according to the annual rent or estimated rent, from a first-class establishment with a yearly rental of $10,000 to an eighth-class hotel with a yearly rental of less than $100, charged license fees $200 to $5 accordingly. Eating houses paid $10 per year for a license.

CALIFORNIA COUNTIES IRS RECORDS SURVEYED BY YEARS

Amador 1863&1866

Butte 1863&1866

Calaveras 1864

El Dorado 1863&1866

Nevada 1863& 1866

Placer 1863& 1866

Plumas 1863

Sacramento* 1863

Shasta 1863&1866

Sierra 1863&1866

Siskiyou 1863

Yuba 1863

GOLD COUNTRY BUSINESS DENSITY BY COUNTY 1863

 

 

1863 HOTELS RETAIL LIQ WHO LIQ LIVERY EATERY APOTHECARY
Amador 17 131 1 9 7
Butte 51 116 5 4 5
El Dorado 46 109 1
Nevada 53 170 9 9 9 5
Placer 23 131 2 7 11 2
Shasta 11 66 3 2
Sierra 52 168 14 2 2
Yuba 9 14 1
Calaveras (1864) 23 138 9 14 3
Sacramento (Cosumne) 1 5
              286 1048 17 55 50 14

                                                                                                                                        NEVADA COUNTY GOLD  CAMPS   BLM & USFS LANDS                                                                                                                                                      HOTELS,  SALOONS, LIVERIES , EATING HOUSES, DRUGS, WHOLESALE LIQUORS    

                                                                                                                                                                  

                               BEANS 1867 DIRECT0RY OF NEVADA COUNTY                                     

NEVADA COUNTY 1860’S MINING CAMPS ON PUBLIC LANDS   

                                                                 

                                                            CONTACT US REGARDING ANY   SITES ON PRIVATE PROPERTY  

                                                                  WE HAVE 11,000+ LOCATIONS, 5 STATES, 1862-1888

 

 

LAKE CITY

Lake City , originally called Painesville is an unincorporated community  in  Nevada County located east of North Columbia, and to the west of North Bloomfield,

Lake City, near the South Yuba River , is located at 39.35861N, -120.94056W, the elevation is 3,390 feet.

The town was settled in 1853 as a result of the California  Gold Rush and subsequent hydraulic mining at Malakoff Diggings. Within four years, more than 300 people lived in town.

The first hotel was built in 1855.

Our research shows 2 hotels and 4 saloons operating in 1863, but by 1866  only Marius Bremond remained, operating a hotel and saloon operation. Post office operated 1864-1869 under the name Painesville.

MOORE’S FLAT

Moores Flat, orMoore’s Flat as it was listed in postal records, had a post office from 1857 intermittently until 1914.  The site was formerly called Clinton and had a post office under that name 1854-1857.It is situated at an elevation of 4,144 feet. Moore’s Flat is located 4.25 miles north-northeast of North Bloomfield.

Moore’s Flat was settled between 1851 and 1852 as a gold rush site with “Marks & Co.” one of its few known gold dust dealers.

In 1880, the population was 50. By the early 1900’s, the population of the town declined quickly.

The name honors H.M. Moore who built the first house and a store there in 1851.

 

Our original research shows 2 hotels, 8 saloons, a druggist, eating house and 2 livery stables operating in 1863. But by 1866,at least in our business types researched, only 2 apothecaries, a livery stable, and a wholesale liquor dealer remained…….No saloons? Record are quite complete, we will never know.

NORTH BLOOMFIELD

Settled in 1852 as a mining camp of the Gold Rush, it was originally named Humbug after the creek of the same name.As the settlement grew, it was renamed Humbug City, and then to Bloomfield. The settlement thrived during Malakoff Diggins mining days. When a post office was established on June 1, 1857, residents selected the current name to differentiate the town from another California town named Bloomfield.

In 1857, the population was approximately 500. In 1860 the North Bloomfield Mining and Gravel Company arrived and began hydraulic mining operations. By 1876, the population swelled to 2000. But in 1884, when hydraulic mining ended because of a lawsuit by Sacramento area farmers, North Bloomfield became an uninhabited San Juan Ridge ghost town.[3]

In the present day, the town of North Bloomfield is contained within the Malakoff Diggins State Historic Park. Some of the town’s original buildings remain and a few have been reconstructed.

In 1863, according to our original research, Philip Sack operated the only hotel in camp. Three saloons paid license fees the same year. By 1866 hard times had reached North Bloomfield, just 2 saloons remained, one operated by C&J Nash. the other operated by a Chinese saloon keeper name Yat Wa.

 

OMEGA

Omega ,originally, Delerium Tremens,* was a former settlement  first populated in 1850 by a single miner, J.A. Dixon, working a claim during the California Gold Rush. The town was located 3.25 miles east-southeast of the present-day unincorporated town of Washington, California.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A sister town, Alpha, located at what is now the site of the historical Omega Hydraulic Diggings, was about 1 mi  north of Omega. In the mid 1850’s, following the introduction of hydraulic mining operations nearby, the town of. Omega prospered, had a post office which operated from 1857 to 1891.

DELERIUM TREMENS* 

Delirium tremens is a severe form of alcohol withdrawal. It involves sudden and severe mental or nervous system changes

Delirium tremens can occur when you stop drinking alcohol after a period of heavy drinking, especially if you do not eat enough food.

Delirium tremens may also be caused by head injury, infection, or illness in people with a history of heavy alcohol use.

It occurs most often in people who have a history of alcohol withdrawal. It is especially common in those who drink 4 to 5 pints  of wine, 7 to 8 pints  of beer, or 1 pint of “hard” alcohol every day for several months. Delirium tremens also commonly affects people who have used alcohol for more than 10 years.

Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, they met their end by Delerlium Tremens in Omega. Aptly named town, the jokes write themselves.

Our research of IRS assessment for the year 1863 shows only 2 Hotel/Saloon combinations operating in Omega. James McCambridge and G Pierce sold liquor and rented rooms. No records exist for Omega businesses in 1866.

ORLEANS FLAT

Orleans Flat (also, Orlean’s FlatOrleans, and Concord is a former settlement in Nevada County, Orleans Flat is located 5.25 miles  northeast of North Bloomfield  It is situated at an elevation of 4,153 ft

“The place was first named Concord (by 1888), and then Orleans (by 1898), before Orleans Flat.”  This according to USGS, but according to Internal Revenue Department records for 1863 John Shell had a hotel at “ORLEANS FLAT” 

 

 

RED DOG

Red Dog (also known as Brooklyn or Brooklin) was a California gold rush mining town located in  south-central Nevada County, California, 6 mi  northeast of Chicago Park. Red Dog Hill, a mine and campsite, was founded by three men all under the age of 22, and was named by their youngest, a 15-year-old prospector. As mining operations grew, the campsite became a settlement, and then a town with a population of 2,000 residents, before it was eventually abandoned. Still considered important today, Red Dog Townsite is listed on the National Register of Historic laces.

According to Internal Revenue Department assessment records John Smith ran the only hotel, 3 saloons also operated in 1866, the only year for which records are available.   

 

YOU BET

 

 

You Bet, a community in Nevada County,California located in the Sierra  foothills, 7 miles  east of Grass Valley The mining camp  of You Bet was established during the California Gold Rush, principally by miners from across Birdseye Canyon in the nearby town of  Waloupa which had been founded just to the south in 1852. As its diggings played out, miners began moving about a half a mile to the north, to the other side of Birdseye Canyon. Lazarus Beard opened a saloon there in 1857. According to local lore, the Waloupa miners gathered one day in Beard’s saloon to name the new town. His favorite phrase was “you bet”. Whenever Beard was asked about a proposed name, he would reply “you bet.” After much drinking, the miners decided that You Bet sounded just right.[

The town grew quickly. Soon, several stage lines connected it with Nevada City and other mining areas. By 1864, the town had 40–50 buildings, including hotels, stores, shops and saloons. A post office was established in 1868 and served the community until 1903.

Internal Revenue Assessment records for 1863 show P R Hobbs operating the only hotel in towns. Five saloons and a livery stable operated as well.

1866 records show 4 saloons in business, Catharine Stitch ran the towns only eating house. The 1863 Hobbs Hotel had apparently folded operation by ’66,

NEVADA COUNTY 1860’s MINING CAMPS ON PUBLIC LANDS